- ROLE OF WOMEN’S TIME IN AGRICULTURE-NUTRITION LINKAGES: PANEL DATA EVIDENCE FROM RURAL INDIA. (Prabhu L. Pingali)
In recent discourse, there is a growing concern that increasing women’s agricultural work increases their work and time burdens and may negatively impact their time for providing nutrition to the household. In the context of agriculture-nutrition policy and interventions, an understanding of the role of woman’s time is important to mitigate any negative consequences of increased time constraints. This paper addresses this research gap by analyzing the role of woman’s time constraints on their nutrition; using a high-frequency primary data on time use and dietary intake of 960 women from rural India. Our findings show that women contribute significantly to agriculture as well as domestic work, and they are time constrained. We find that during peak seasons of agriculture, work in agriculture translates to increased time constraints. These trade-offs in time lead to lower intake of nutrients such as calories, proteins, Iron and Zinc. Given that women already face major micro nutrient deficiencies, any further reductions in micro nutrient intakes can be detrimental.
2. EMPOWERMENT, MARKET INTEGRATION AND NUTRITIONAL OUTCOMES FOR WOMEN IN RURAL INDIA. (Soumya Gupta and Prabhu L. Pingali) (SUBMITTED)
In this paper we study the role that both household market integration and women’s empowerment in agriculture can play in determining women’s dietary diversity. Our analysis is based on primary data from 3600 households across India on agriculture, nutrition and anthropometric outcomes. After controlling for individual, household and village- level explanatory factors we find that for the same level of per capita market purchases women who are empowered have significantly higher dietary diversity scores relative to women who are disempowered in agriculture. At a disaggregated level it is women’s ability to take decisions related to production, and SHG membership that is a driver of this relationship. Women’s empowerment also enhances dietary diversity in the presence of disaggregated per capita purchases of non- cereals like pulses, meat, dairy and eggs.
3. DOES AN INCREASE IN WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT IN AGRICULTURE LEAD TO BETTER NUTRITIONAL OUTCOMES? (Soumya Gupta and Prabhu L. Pingali)
In this paper we study the relationship between women’s empowerment and nutritional outcomes over time. Using primary data of 960 households in the Chandrapur District of Maharashtra, India, we find that; an increase in women’s empowerment leads to a shift towards consumption of more micro-nutrient rich foods. There are however no significant changes in dietary diversity and BMI outcomes for women. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a study uses a panel data on Woman’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) and to explore the relationship between empowerment and nutritional outcomes using individual level micro-nutrient data.
ADDITIONAL RESEARCH WORK
Nutritional Outcomes and its structural determinants: Spatial heterogeneity within India (Andaleeb Rahman and Prabhu L. Pingali) (draft available on request)
Adapting the Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index using well-defined indicators for India: Insights from field implementation (Soumya Gupta, Dhiraj k Singh and Prabhu L. Pingali) (draft available on request)
Effect of childcare on time use patterns of rural women with young children: An analysis across Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, India (Laili Irani and Ankit Nanda) (submitted)
Impact of women’s empowerment on child health in India (Divya Titus) (Work in progress)
Remittances in Development of Post-conflict Situation: Sri Lanka” featured in the Pardee center for research at Boston University (Late Prof. John R. Harris)